• Surveying the Effect of Export Pricing on Managing the Distribution Channels in Export Companies of Isfahan Province     Original Research Article

    Pages 1-7
    Reza Sohrabi, Majid Rostami  Bashmani, Dr. Mehdi Noursina 

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  • Abstract

    Relying on sales agency and distribution theory, this concept that leverages of pricing for export as driving the distributions channels in export aspect will increase the ability of companies in attract the distribution agency or balance and stability among export distribution channels, institutionalized fully operational. In a way that using these leverages, which only five cases surveyed in this research, this issue will confirm.These leverages, which cause to create the motivation in distribution channels and subsequently in management of distribution channels and increase the export in companies, as characteristics of pricing in export are:Volume discounts, sales validity, exchange rate, special price of new products, and acceptable profit margin. Population in this research includes 44 export companies in Isfahan province – which they are mainly the best national exporters. Volume of sample potentially includes 176 persons of personnel of these companies as: chief executive office, commercial manager, sales manager, sales clerk which are linked to export distribution channels directly, and 110 persons of them filled the questionnaire.In this research in order to achieve to answers of filled questionnaire as quick as possible, a prepared and installed form in a website has been used and the output of this website according to Excel table was transferred to the SPSS software and its results are extracted.

    Factors Affecting Spiritual Management According to Holy Zahra's Characteristics  Original Research Article
    Pages 8-24
    Lida Shafiee Haghshenas, Esmaiil Kavosi
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  • Abstract

    This research has been done along recognizing and ranking the factors affecting spiritual management according to holy Zahra's characteristics. Used research method in this investigation is field and in terms of method of perform it is kind of correlation and in terms of purpose is in category of applied researches. Population of this research includes all visitors to library of holy Maasoume's shrine in Qom province in the second three months of 2016 which its number is equal to 2000 persons. In this research instrument of gathering required information and data is questionnaire which includes 56 items and has been set by researcher, and validity and reliability of questionnaire also has been tested and confirmed in the view experts and Cronbach's Alpha test too. Data analysis of research has been done in two levels of descriptive statistical and inferential statistical. Describing data has been presented in the form of tables in two sections of background variables and main variables by absolute frequency, relative frequency, mean, standard deviation, and variance indicators and in section of inferential statistical in order to determine the normality of data the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, in order to determine the quality of sample the Bartlett's test and linear regression test, Durbin-Watson test (DW), the coefficient of determination, significance test in regression pattern, significance test for regression equation, and significance test of coefficient have been used to test hypotheses.

  • The Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on Stock Returns in Tehran Stock Exchange     Original Research Article
    Pages 25-48
    Sahameh Eslami, Mohammad Reza Akbari
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  • Abstract

    Along with increased trade between countries, exchange rate fluctuations is considered as one of the most important sources of enterprise risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of between exchange rate fluctuations and stock returns in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this study, based on theoretical models of the past, this relationship is investigated as interrupted and simultaneous regression models. First, the results for financial managers of listed companies in the stock exchange will be valued, because a new view is created to control the exchange rate fluctuations and the impact of decisions on the sensitivity of stock returns from exchange rate fluctuations will be understood. Secondly, the results of this research for domestic and foreign investors, offers comprehensive information about the impact of exchange rate on stock returns of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. Thirdly, the results of this study showed the impact of policy making, implementation and monitoring of exchange rates by the central bank in the financial market of the country and particularly Tehran Stock Exchange. In terms of type and purpose, it is an applied research and in other view, it is a descriptive study. The method is also a sectional survey. Data collection for this study is library and documents. The statistical population in this study are monetary, banking and currency variables in macroeconomic of the country amongst 1994 to 2014. In this study, the variables were examined. The mathematical model presented in this study is E-GARCH model. The estimated return on equity for the specified period showed that exchange rate uncertainty in the short and long term have positive effects on stock returns in the stock market. This result shows that in the period under investigation, the coefficients of other variables in the model are consistent with the theory. Accordingly, GDP, exchange rates and relative prices has a positive effect and domestic demand has a positive and significant effect on stock returns.

  • Investigating the Impact of Lean Management on Innovation in Vietnamese SMEs   Original Research Article
    Pages 49-57
    Huong Thu Pham
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  • Abstract

    Internationalization in society and economy has fostered promptly the production volumes and product diversification due to the complexity in customers’ design. Lean management has been known as effective and efficient tools in the management of customer value by reducing cost of the resources necessary to achieve the needs of customers. Today innovation has been considered as driving force of business success in every industry in the context of high competition. The link between lean management and innovation capability has been recently proposed in some literatures, which show that some aspects of lean management may negatively affect and some may positively affect a company’s capability to be successful with certain types of innovations. This paper develops a framework to analyze the impact of lean management on innovation capability in Vietnamese small and medium enterprises. Five propositions has been presented and tested in the sample of 122 SMEs engaged in lean management. The findings suggest that due to implementation of lean management the changes of organizational structure and inter-departmental coordination have positive effect and the changes of human resources management and organizational culture have negative effect on the innovation capability..

  • Practical Application of Theory in Business   Original Research Article
    Pages 58-67
    Jason Earl Thomas
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  • Abstract

    Theorists spend countless hours conducting research to explain phenomena that exist in the world and to increase the base of knowledge in their fields. Once this knowledge is discovered and codified, it should be used. However, scholars are divided on the relationship between theory and practical application and their reciprocal value. This paper explores the relationship between theory and practical application and displays a specific example of how one theory, the theory of service-dominant logic, can be practically applied in the field of business.

  • The Impact of Surplus Free Cash Flow, Corporate Governance and Firm Size on Earnings Predictability in Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange   Original Research Article
    Pages 68-76
    Samaneh Ahmadi Shadmehri,Ehsan Khansalar,George Giannopoulos, Mahmoud Lari Dasht-Bayaz
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  • Abstract

    Among the most important cases considered in financial statements by investors and other users of financial statements is earnings-related information. Given the need of the users of financial statements for the future information of companies and use of past data to predict the future, it seems that earnings forecast is among the favorite items of investors. In fact, earnings forecast by the management provides information about the future of companies. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of surplus free cash flow, corporate governance and firm size on earnings predictability in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is an applied study and of post-event causal type. For data analysis, OLS regression method has been applied using Eviews‏ software. The research results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant relationship between earnings predictability and surplus free cash flow and good corporate mechanisms play a positive role in the relationship between surplus free cash flow and earnings predictability. According to the results, in large companies, good corporate mechanisms enhance the relationship between surplus free cash flow and earnings predictability.