• Successful customer value management: Key lessons and emerging trends    Original Research Article
    Pages 1-15
    Peter C. Verhoef, Katherine N. Lemon
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  • Abstract

    In the past decade, firms have paid increasing attention to customer value management (CVM). Through customer-centric management systems, firms aim to maximize customer value. In this article, we put forth six important lessons that firms can employ for successful CVM, integrating available research knowledge and best practices: (1) use CVM to improve business performance; (2) ensure that CVM is more customer driven than IT driven; (3) adopt customer lifetime value as a core metric; (4) invest in strong analytical capabilities; (5) understand the key drivers of customer acquisition, customer retention, and customer expansion; and (6) manage channels to create customer value.

    The mutual influence of Environmental Management Systems and the EU ETS: Findings for the Italian pulp and paper industry        Original Research Article
    Pages 16-26
    Federica Gasbarro, Francesco Rizzi, Marco Frey
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    Abstract

    The European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is designed to be a flexible and efficient mechanism to encourage carbon-intensive industries to reduce CO2 emissions cost-effectively. Similarly, Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) are well-established tools designed to improve the efficiency of the environmental performance of companies. Up to now, knowledge of the mutual influences of strategic planning, ETS management and EMSs is still incomplete, and their implications are not fully understood. This study tries to identify whether the involvement of a firm in the ETS with the adoption of an EMS favors the generation of corporate strategic synergies in terms of organizational management and environmental planning. Due to a relatively short time frame and the need for exploratory research, a multiple case study emerged as the most suitable approach. Hence various Italian pulp and paper companies involved in the EU ETS were interviewed and analyzed. We found that organizations that integrate ETS management and EMS tend to establish satisfactory standards and procedures that are relevant for environmental monitoring and compliance. However not all ETS-related activities are integrated into EMSs. In addition, despite some mutual synergies, these are not sufficient for determining corporate environmental planning.

    Another cog in the machine: Designing communities of practice in professional bureaucracies    Original Research Article
    Pages 27-40
    Jean-François Harvey, Patrick Cohendet, Laurent Simon, Louis-Etienne Dubois
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    Abstract

    This paper explores the purposeful design and development of a community of practice within a professional bureaucracy. The view of communities of practice has shifted from fundamentally organic entities to ones that can be deliberately designed and developed and they have frequently been presented as a panacea for knowledge sharing and creation, a basis for innovation in organizations. However, evidence that organizations have succeeded to achieve this challenge is lacking. Through the processual analysis of such an organizational intervention, this longitudinal study shows that these two contexts – the community of practice and the professional bureaucracy – do not mesh well and create tensions for those employees who are also community of practice members. This implies that the community of practice approach may not serve all types of organizations. The findings also lead to the reconsideration of communities of practice in organizations and a critique of the main appraisal of this approach is presented. It is suggested that communities of practice should be regarded as a social phenomenon rather than an organizational learning tool.

    Material artifacts: Practices for doing strategy with ‘stuff’     Original Research Article
    Pages 41-54
    Paula Jarzabkowski, Andreas Paul Spee, Michael Smets
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  • Abstract

    This paper addresses the dearth of research into material artifacts and how they are engaged in strategizing activities. Building on the strategy-as-practice perspective, and the notion of epistemic objects, we develop a typology of strategy practices that show how managers use material artifacts to strategize by a dual process of knowledge abstraction and substitution. Empirically, we study the practice of underwriting managers in reinsurance companies. Our findings first identify the artifacts – pictures, maps, data packs, spreadsheets and graphs – that these managers use to appraise reinsurance deals. Second, the analysis of each artifact’s situated use led to the identification of five practices for doing strategy with artifacts: physicalizing, locating, enumerating, analyzing, and selecting. Last, we developed a typology that shows how practices vary in terms of their level of abstraction from the physical properties of the risk being reinsured and unfold through a process of substituting. Our conceptual framework extends existing work in the strategy-as-practice field that calls for research into the role of material artifacts.

    A strategic management framework of tangible and intangible assets      Original Research Article
    Pages 55-66
    Marco Greco, Livio Cricelli, Michele Grimaldi
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  • Abstract

    This article is aimed at supporting the management in the strategic planning of investments on critical value drivers, taking into consideration their impact on competitive advantage and the cumulative investments made on them. We describe a framework through a step-by-step procedure. No previous strategic management framework has adopted a holistic approach to the strategic analysis of value drivers. In fact, unlike many other strategic management models, our framework adopts a competitive advantage perspective considering both the wholeness of organizational value drivers and the interdependencies among the value drivers. Managers are asked to make pairwise comparisons that are synthesized through the analytic network process. The outputs of the synthesis are analyzed both qualitatively (synoptic analysis) and quantitatively (Spearman’s and Kendall’s non-parametric rank correlation coefficients). The analysis of the resulting values turns in useful strategic suggestions for the top management in order to enhance the organizational strategic coherence.